Court of Justice of the European Communities

Provides a uniform application and interpretation of EU law throughout its territory. However, the competence of the Court does not extend to the new areas of activity of the European Union established by the 1992 Maastricht Treaty — common foreign and security policies, as well as cooperation of member states in the field of justice and internal affairs related to interstate relations.

  • Functions. The Court of Justice of the EU is subject to all matters related to the implementation of Community law. The decisions of the Court cannot be challenged and are subject to unconditional execution.
  • Composition. It consists of 15 judges (one from each state) and nine legal advisers (the number of the latter can be increased by unanimous decision of the Council). They are appointed for a term of six years by the governments of the Member States and are independent in the performance of their duties. The President of the Court is elected by the judges for three years. Every three years there is a partial update of the composition of judges and legal advisers.

Location — Luxembourg.

In 1989, in accordance with the Single European Act, the Court of the First Instance was additionally established to assist the EU Court. He was given consideration of some lawsuits brought against EU institutions and bodies by individuals and companies, disputes regarding competition rules, labor disputes, the application of anti-dumping procedures, consideration of cases related to the operation of the EUS Treaty. The legal content of these decisions may be appealed to the Court of Justice of the EU. The trial court consists of 15 judges appointed in the same way as the EU Court.

The court of auditors

Established in 1975 to audit the budget of the EU and its institutions.

  • Functions. Checks the income and expenditure reports of the EU and all its institutions and bodies with access to EU funds; monitors the quality of financial management; after the end of each financial year, draws up a report on his work, and also submits to the European Parliament and the Council conclusions or comments on individual issues (at the request of the institutes or on his own initiative); helps the European Parliament to control the implementation of the EU budget.
  • Composition. The chamber consists of representatives of member states (one from each member state). They are appointed by the Council by unanimous decision for a period of six years and are completely independent in the performance of their duties.

Location — Luxembourg.

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