Orography

In terms of average (about 300 m) and maximum (4807 m, Mont Blanc in the Alps) Europe’s altitude is inferior to other parts of the world, except Australia. About 60% of the surface of Europe is located at an altitude of less than 200 m (partially below sea level: the coast of the Caspian Sea — 28 m, some areas of the coasts of the North and Baltic Seas), 24% — from 200 to 500 m, 10% — from 500 to 1000 m 6% — more than 1000 m (including 1.5% — above 2000 m). A similar distribution of surface heights reflects the dominance of flat terrain in Europe. Almost all of Eastern Europe and the northern part of Central Europe are occupied by the East European (Russian) plain and its continuation in the west is the Central European plain; significant areas are occupied by plains in Fennoscandia. In the remaining regions, plains are interspersed between the mountains (Middle Danube, Lower Danube, etc.). In the extreme east, the Ural Mountains extend, in the north-west — the Scandinavian mountains. A band of small mountains in size and height covers the southern part of Central Europe: the Central French Massif, the Vosges, the Black Forest, the Rhine Shale Mountains, etc. From the south this band is framed by the highest mountains of Europe — the Alps and the Carpathians. The mountainous terrain prevails in southern Europe: the Pyrenees, Andalusian mountains, Apennine mountains, Stara Planina, Dinar mountains, Rhodope mountains, Pindus, etc.

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